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Model Profiles

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2023 Yearbook

Parents as Teachers

Parents as Teachers (PAT) aims to increase parent knowledge of early childhood development, improve parenting practices, provide early detection of developmental delays and health issues, increase children’s school readiness and school success, and prevent child abuse and neglect. The four components of the model (home visits, group connections, child screenings, and resource network) all focus on parent-child interaction, development-centered parenting, and family well-being.

What is the model’s approach to providing home visiting services?

Home visits take place based on each family’s experiences and stressors. Families with one or fewer designated experiences and/or stressors should receive at least 12 visits each year. Those with two or more designated experiences and/or stressors should receive at least 24 visits each year. Programs are designed to deliver services for at least 2 years. Families may enroll at any time prenatally through kindergarten.

PAT serves all families with young children. Some local programs have specific eligibility requirements.

Who is implementing the model?

Home Visitors

PAT was implemented by 4,450 home visitors in 2021. Most home visitors (73 percent) have a bachelor’s degree or higher. The model requires a high school diploma or GED plus 2 years of experience working with young children and/or parents for home visitors. The model recommends home visitors complete approximately 40 visits per month. On average, home visitors have a caseload of 18 families.


PAT was implemented by 744.2  full-time equivalent supervisors in 2021. The model recommends a bachelor’s or master’s degree and 5 years of experience working with young children and families for supervisors.

Where is the model implemented?

PAT operated in 934 local agencies across 48 states and the District of Columbia in 2021. PAT also operated outside the United States and its territories in Canada, Germany, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom in 2021.


Families Served Through Evidence-Based Home Visiting in 2021

home visits provided
including 707,570 virtual visits
families served
children served


31% Hispanic or Latino

69% Not Hispanic or Latino

Caregiver education

19% No HS diploma

81% HS diploma or higher

Caregiver age

10% ≤21 years

Household income

65% Low-income status

Child insurance status

2% None

Child age

17% <1 year

43% 1-2 years

40% 3-5 years

Languages spoken at home

74% English

21% Spanish

5% Another language

Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding. • Participant data reflect the 2020–2021 program year (July 1, 2020–June 30, 2021). • Virtual home visits may be underreported due to data collection limitations. • Caregivers currently enrolled in high school were included in the HS diploma or higher calculation.