Agencies can choose from dozens of home visiting models when working with families. The models have much in common: they focus on families with young children, they are voluntary, and they deliver services in the home or another preferred location. The models also vary based on factors such as their purpose, who delivers services, the duration or intensity of home visits, and the evidence supporting the model.
When selecting a model, organizations may consider community needs and characteristics, available resources, and potential obstacles and supports. A good match may increase fidelity, or the organization’s ability to implement the model as intended, making it more likely to be effective.
The following home visiting models meet U.S. Department of Health and Human Services criteria for evidence of effectiveness according to the Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness project (HomVEE).
Evidence-Based Models Operating in the United States
- Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC)
- Child First
- Early Head Start Home-Based Option (EHS)
- Family Check-Up (FCU)
- Family Connects
- Family Spirit
- Health Access Nurturing Development Services (HANDS)
- Healthy Families America (HFA)
- Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)
- Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-Visiting (MECSH)
- Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)
- Maternal Infant Health Program
- Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)
- Parents as Teachers (PAT)
- Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)
- Promoting First Relationships
- SafeCare/SafeCare Augmented2
Evidence-Based Models Not Operating in the United States
- Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers3
- Early Start4
- Healthy Beginnings5
- Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT)6
- Minding the Baby7
- Oklahoma’s Community-Based Family Resource and Support (CBFRS) Program8
The NHVRC also collects data from emerging models that do not meet HomVEE criteria; see the 2023 Home Visiting Yearbook for profiles of 10 emerging models.
1In 2015, HomVEE revised the HealthySteps profile to include changes to the model, noting home visiting is not HealthySteps’ primary service delivery strategy. In fiscal year 2016, states could no longer implement HealthySteps with MIECHV funds.
2In July 2018, HomVEE updated its report on SafeCare to state that the model did not meet criteria for the general or tribal population. An adaptation known as SafeCare Augmented does meet criteria for the general population.
3The model is no longer in operation. See the HomVEE site for details.
4Early Start operates in New Zealand. The most recent data are reported in the 2022 Home Visiting Yearbook.
5Healthy Beginnings operates in Australia and the United Kingdom. The most recent data are reported in the 2020 Home Visiting Yearbook.
6In November 2022, HomVEE approved the INSIGHT model as evidence based. The model is not currently operating. See the HomVEE site for details.
7In July 2021, Minding the Baby stopped operating in the United States. The model currently operates in Denmark. The most recent data are reported in the 2022 Home Visiting Yearbook.
8The model is no longer in operation. See the HomVEE site for details.