Agencies can choose from dozens of home visiting models when working with families. The models have much in common: they focus on families with young children, they are voluntary, and they deliver services in the home or another preferred location. The models also vary based on factors such as their purpose, who delivers services, the duration or intensity of home visits, and the evidence supporting the model.

When selecting a model, organizations may consider community needs and characteristics, available resources, and potential obstacles and supports. A good match may increase fidelity, or the organization’s ability to implement the model as intended, making it more likely to be effective.

Evidence-Based Models

The following home visiting models meet U.S. Department of Health and Human Services criteria for evidence of effectiveness according to the Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness project (HomVEE).

Evidence-Based Models Operating in the United States

Evidence-Based Models Not Operating in the United States

  • Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers5
  • Early Start6
  • Healthy Beginnings7
  • Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT)8
  • Minding the Baby9
  • Oklahoma’s Community-Based Family Resource and Support (CBFRS) Program5

Emerging Models

The NHVRC also collects data from emerging models that do not meet HomVEE criteria; see the 2022 Home Visiting Yearbook for profiles of 12 emerging models.


1We did not receive 2021 data to include the FCU profile in the 2022 Home Visiting Yearbook. The most recent data are reported in the 2021 Home Visiting Yearbook.

2In 2015, HomVEE revised the HealthySteps profile to include changes to the model, noting home visiting is not HealthySteps’ primary service delivery strategy. In fiscal year 2016, states could no longer implement HealthySteps with MIECHV funds.

3In November 2022, HomVEE included Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW) as an evidence-based model; NHVRC publications released before that date refer to MIHOW as an emerging model.

4In July 2018, HomVEE updated its report on SafeCare to state that the model did not meet criteria for the general or tribal population. An adaptation known as SafeCare Augmented does meet criteria for the general population.

5The model is no longer in operation. See the HomVEE site for details.

6Early Start operates in New Zealand. The most recent data are reported in the 2022 Home Visiting Yearbook.

7Healthy Beginnings operates in Australia and the United Kingdom. The most recent data are reported in the 2020 Home Visiting Yearbook.

8In November 2022, HomVEE approved the INSIGHT model as evidence based. The model is not currently operating. See the HomVEE site for details.

9In July 2021, Minding the Baby stopped operating in the United States. The model currently operates in Denmark. The most recent data are reported in the 2022 Home Visiting Yearbook.