Multiracial family snuggles with their newborn while sitting on the couch

Model Profiles

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2023 Yearbook

Parents as Teachers

PAT aims to increase parent knowledge of early childhood development, improve parenting practices, provide early detection of developmental delays and health issues, increase children’s school readiness and school success, and prevent child abuse and neglect. The four components of the model (home visits, group connections, child screenings, and resource network) all focus on parent-child interaction, development-centered parenting, and family well-being. See for details.

What is the model’s approach to providing home visiting services?

Home visits take place based on a family’s level of need. Families with one or fewer high-needs characteristics receive at least 12 visits each year. Those with two or more characteristics receive at least 24 visits each year. Programs are designed to deliver services for at least 2 years. Families may enroll at any age through kindergarten, but PAT recommends families initiate services prenatally.

PAT serves all families with young children. Some local programs have specific eligibility requirements.

Who is implementing the model?

Home Visitors

PAT was implemented by 4,628 home visitors in 2018. Most home visitors (72 percent) have a bachelor’s degree or higher. The model requires a high school diploma or GED plus 2 years of experience working with young children and/or parents for home visitors. Home visitors typically maintain a caseload of 15 to 22 families, depending on the families’ level of need.


PAT was implemented by 761.4 full-time equivalent supervisors in 2018. The model recommends a bachelor’s or master’s degree and 5 years of experience working with young children and families for supervisors.

Where is the model implemented?

PAT operated in 987 local agencies across 49 states and the District of Columbia in 2018. PAT also operated outside the United States and its territories in Canada, Germany, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom in 2018.


Families Served Through Evidence-Based Home Visiting in 2018

home visits provided
families served
children served


29% Hispanic or Latino

71% Not Hispanic or Latino

Caregiver education

23% No HS diploma

77% HS diploma or higher

Caregiver age

9% ≤ 21 years

Household income

65% Low-income status

Child age

18% < 1 year

45% 1-2 years

37% 3-6 years

Languages spoken at home

74% English

21% Spanish

5% Other

Child insurance status

2% None

Note • Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding. • Participants may select more than one language spoken in the home. • Data from international programs are not presented in this profile. • Caregivers and children with missing data are excluded from the calculations.