Young boy with blue glasses and hearing aid being carried by his father
Who Is Being Served?

By Emerging Models

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2023 Yearbook

Home visiting programs receive local, private, state, and federal funding to support services delivered through emerging models. The information below quantifies and describes families served through emerging home visiting models in 2020, regardless of how the services were funded.

These data are separate from those included in the National Profile (which focuses on families served through evidence-based models). All 10 of the emerging models we contacted for the 2021 Yearbook provided data about the families they serve. (Source: Emerging models represented in the data include Baby TALK, Early Steps to School Success (ESSS), Following Baby Back Home (FBBH), HealthConnect One’s Community-Based Doula Program, Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker Program (MIHOW), Nurses for Newborns, Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP), ParentChild+, Team for Infants Exposed to Substance use (TIES) Program, and Welcome Baby. See the [methodology section]( for more details on the selection of emerging models. Information is not available on races included in the “another race” category or languages included in the “another language” category. We will request additional information on the races and languages included in these categories going forward to better represent the diversity of home visiting participants.)Go to footnote #>1

According to the data received—

home visits were provided (including virtual visits)
families received home visiting
children received home visiting

Of the more than 650,000 home visits provided, at least—


were virtual visits

The number of virtual visits is likely higher due to challenges differentiating virtual and in-person visits in some data systems. Nine emerging models provided counts of virtual home visits. Despite some gaps in data reporting, five emerging models did develop guidance or definitions in 2020 to support programs in delivering virtual services. For example, most considered the type of technology used (e.g., video conferencing, phone calls) and the content covered to distinguish virtual home visits from other family interactions.


Families Served by Emerging Home Visiting Models: Child Characteristics



<1 year 61
1–2 years 28
3–5 years 11
Health Insurance Status


Public 80
Private 18
None 2
Primary Language


English 65
Spanish 27
Another language 8

Source: Data provided by emerging models. See our [methodology section]( for more detail by variable.

Families Served by Emerging Home Visiting Models: Family Characteristics

Caregiver Age Percentage
≤21 years 9
22–29 years 41
30–44 years 47
≥45 years 3
Race Percentage
American Indian/Alaska Native 3
Asian 6
Black 18
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander <1
White 28
Multiple 4
Another race 41


Hispanic or Latino 50
Caregiver Education


No high school diploma 24
High school diploma/GED 38
Some college/training 25
Bachelor’s degree or higher 13
Household Income


Low income 92

Source: Data provided by emerging models. See our [methodology section]( for more detail by variable.