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2023 Yearbook

Parents as Teachers

Parents as Teachers (PAT) aims to increase parent knowledge of early childhood development, improve parenting practices, provide early detection of developmental delays and health issues, increase children’s school readiness and school success, and prevent child abuse and neglect. The four components of the model (home visits, group connections, child screenings, and resource network) all focus on parent-child interaction, development-centered parenting, and family well-being.

What is the model’s approach to providing home visiting services?

Home visits take place based on a family’s level of need. Families with one or fewer high-needs characteristics receive at least 12 visits each year. Those with two or more characteristics receive at least 24 visits each year. Programs are designed to deliver services for at least 2 years. Families may enroll at any age through kindergarten, but PAT recommends families initiate services prenatally.

PAT serves all families with young children. Some local programs have specific eligibility requirements.

Who is implementing the model?

Home Visitors

PAT was implemented by 4,528 home visitors in 2020. Most home visitors (73 percent) have a bachelor’s degree or higher. The model requires a high school diploma or GED plus 2 years of experience working with young children and/or parents for home visitors. Home visitors typically maintain a caseload of 15 to 22 families, depending on the families’ level of need.


PAT was implemented by 752 full-time equivalent supervisors in 2020. The model recommends a bachelor’s or master’s degree and 5 years of experience working with young children and families for supervisors.

Where is the model implemented?

PAT operated in 932 local agencies across 48 states and the District of Columbia in 2020. PAT also operated outside the United States and its territories in Canada, Germany, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom in 2020.


US map with Parents as Teachers PAT service area highlighted

Families Served Through Evidence-Based Home Visiting in 2020

home visits provided
including 192,280 virtual visits
families served
children served


30% Hispanic or Latino

70% Not Hispanic or Latino

Caregiver education

19% No HS diploma

81% HS diploma or higher

Caregiver age

11% ≤21 years

Household income

66% Low-income status

Child insurance status

3% None

Child age

18% <1 year

44% 1-2 years

37% 3-5 years

Languages spoken at home

73% English

21% Spanish

6% Another language

Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding. • Participant data reflect the 2019–2020 program year (July 1, 2019–June 30, 2020). • Virtual home visits were underreported due to data collection limitations. • Caregivers currently enrolled in high school were not included in caregiver education calculations.