Visit Attendance Patterns in Nurse-Family Partnership Community Sites




Margaret L. Holland, David L. Olds, Ann M. Dozier, and Harriet J. Kitzman

Brief Type

Journal publication


  • Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)


We examined visit attendance patterns of mothers enrolled in the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) home visitation program and associations between these patterns and characteristics of the families and sites, with the goal of increasing participant engagement. We utilized repeated measures latent class analysis to identify attendance patterns among 66,967 mothers in NFP sites across the USA. Mothers enrolled from 1996 to 2010. Data were collected by home visitors and aggregated by the NFP National Service Office. Five visit attendance patterns were identified. Consistent attenders (22%) remained engaged for the full program and attended 51.3 visits on average. Inconsistent attenders (9%) remained engaged but missed many visits, with an average of 36.4 visits. The remaining patterns were characterized by when participants left the program: early (28%; 6.7 visits), gradually (27%; 19.4 visits), or late (15%; 35.3 visits). Consistent and inconsistent attenders were less likely to use English as their primary language than other participants (R = 0.12; p < .001). Participants with more nurse changes per visit attended were more likely to drop out early (R = 0.11; p < .001). Sites with a higher percent of missing data had smaller portions of mothers who remained consistently engaged in the program over time (b = − 0.032; p < .01) and greater portions in the late (b = 0.007; p < .04) and gradual attrition classes (b = 0.018; p < .01). The large number of participants who dropped out early is concerning. Further exploration of this group may optimize use of resources by improving either retention or targeting of potential participants. (author abstract)

Data Collection Methods

  • Program administrative record reviews
  • Standardized assessment tools
  • Surveys or questionnaires



For More Information

Holland, M. L., Olds, D. L., Dozier, A. M., & Kitzman, H. J. (2018). Visit attendance patterns in Nurse-Family Partnership community sites. Prevention Science, 19(4), 516–527. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-017-0829-6
Author Contact Information:
Margaret L. Holland


  • Participant Characteristics
  • Participant Recruitment, Retention, Engagement, and Dosage