Sociodemographic and Psychosocial Predictors of VIP Attendance in Smart Beginnings Through 6 Months: Effectively Targeting At-Risk Mothers in Early Visits




Elizabeth B. Miller, Caitlin F. Canfield, Pamela A. Morris, Daniel S. Shaw, Carolyn Brockmeyer Cates, and Alan L. Mendelsohn

Brief Type

Journal Publication


  • Other Models


Past research on predictors of participation in early childhood parenting programs suggest that families experiencing higher levels of sociodemographic adversity (e.g., younger maternal age, single parenthood, lower income or education) are less likely to participate in parenting programs. This is significant, as it may indicate that those most in need of additional support are the least likely to receive it. Data from a randomized control trial (RCT) of Smart Beginnings, an integrated, tiered model for school readiness, were used to explore predictors of attendance in Video Interaction Project (VIP) through 6 months. VIP is a primary preventive intervention delivered in tandem with pediatric well-child visits, aimed at reducing income-based disparities in early child development through promotion of responsive parent-child interactions. Using Poisson distribution models (N = 403; treatment arm, n = 201), we find that demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), and psychosocial variables are associated with program attendance but not always in the expected direction. While analyses show that first-time mothers have higher levels of program attendance as expected, we find that less-educated mothers and those with lower parenting self-efficacy have higher levels of attendance as well. The latter findings may imply that the VIP intervention is, by some indicators, effectively targeting families who are more challenging to engage and retain. Implications for pediatric-based interventions with population-level accessibility are discussed. (author abstract)

Data Collection Methods

  • Program administrative record reviews
  • Standardized assessment tools
  • Surveys or questionnaires



For More Information

Miller, E. B., Canfield, C. F., Morris, P. A., Shaw, D. S., Cates, C. B., & Mendelsohn, A. L. (2019). Sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of VIP attendance in Smart Beginnings through 6 months: Effectively targeting at-risk mothers in early visits. Prevention Science. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-01044-y
Author Contact Information:
Elizabeth B. Miller


  • Participant Characteristics
  • Participant Recruitment, Retention, Engagement, and Dosage