Participation in Home Visitation Is Associated With Higher Utilization of Early Intervention




Katherine Bowers, Alonzo T. Folger, Nanhua Zhang, Ting Sa, Jennifer Ehrhardt, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Neera K. Goyal, Judith B. Van Ginkel, and Robert T. Ammerman

Type of Product

Journal publication


  • Healthy Families America (HFA)


Objectives: To determine whether participation in a home visiting program increases and expedites utilization of early intervention services for suspected developmental delays. Methods: Children participating in Every Child Succeeds (ECS), a large home visiting (HV) program serving greater Cincinnati, between 2006 and 2012, were propensity score matched to a sample of children identified from birth records who did not receive services from ECS. Data were linked to early intervention (EI) data acquired from the Ohio Department of Health. Descriptive statistics were employed to evaluate success of the matching. Chi square and log-rank tests evaluated whether the proportion of children accessing EI and the time to EI services differed for families participating in HV compared to eligible children not participating. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression modeled the associations. Results: Among 3574 HV and 3574 comparison participants, there was no difference in the time to EI service utilization; however a higher percentage of HV participants accessed services. Overall, 6% of the HV group and 4.3% of the comparison group accessed services (p = 0.001). Modeling revealed an odd ratio = 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.78, p value = 0.001] and hazard ratio = 1.42 [95% CI 1.15–1.75, p value = 0.001]. Differences in utilization were greatest directly after birth and between approximately 2 and 3 years. Conclusions for Practice: Participation in home visiting was associated with greater utilization of EI services during two important developmental time points, demonstrating that home visiting may serve as an important resource for facilitating access to early intervention services. (author abstract)

Data Collection Methods

  • Program administrative record reviews


For More Information

Bowers, K., Folger, A. T., Zhang, N., Sa, T., Ehrhardt, J., Meinzen-Derr, J., … Ammerman, R. T. (2018). Participation in home visitation is associated with higher utilization of early intervention. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 22(4), 494–500. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-017-2415-8
Author Contact Information:
Katherine Bowers


  • Participant, Family, and Program Outcomes