Parent Involvement in Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Programs: An Integrative Review




Kelly M Bower, Maisa Nimer, Allison L West, and Deborah Gross

Brief Type

Journal Publication


  • Early Head Start Home-Based Option (EHS)
  • Family Connects
  • Healthy Families America (HFA)
  • Minding the Baby
  • Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)
  • SafeCare/SafeCare Augmented


Despite the evidence and investment in evidence-based federally funded maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting, substantial challenges persist with parent involvement: enrolling, engaging, and retaining participants. We present an integrative review and synthesis of recent evidence regarding the influence of multi-level factors on parent involvement in evidence-based home visiting programs. We conducted a search for original research studies published from January 2007 to March 2018 using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases. Twenty-two studies met criteria for inclusion. Parent and family characteristics were the most commonly studied influencing factor; however, consistent evidence for its role in involvement was scarce. Attributes of the home visitor and quality of the relationship between home visitor and participant were found to promote parent involvement. Staff turnover was found to be a barrier to parent involvement. A limited number of influencing factors have been adequately investigated, and those that have reveal inconsistent findings regarding factors that promote parent involvement in home visiting. Future research should move beyond the study of parent- and family-level characteristics and focus on program and home visitor–level characteristics which, although still limited, have demonstrated some consistent association with parent involvement. Neighborhood characteristics have not been well studied and warrant future research. (author abstract)

Data Collection Methods



For More Information

Bower, K. M., Nimer, M., West, A. L., & Gross, D. (2020). Parent involvement in Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting programs: An integrative review. Prevention Science21, 728-747. https://doi.org/10.1111/jmwh.13180
Author Contact Information:
Kelly M Bower


  • Participant Recruitment, Retention, Engagement, and Dosage