Enriching Home Language Environment Among Families From Low-SES Backgrounds: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Home Visiting Curriculum




Christy Y.Y. Leung, Marc W. Hernandez, and Dana L. Suskind

Brief Type

Journal Publication


  • Other Models


This study evaluated the efficacy of the six-month 3Ts Home Visiting (3Ts-HV) curriculum, designed to empower socioeconomically disadvantaged caregivers with evidence-based knowledge and strategies in order to enrich the home language environment for their young children’s cognitive and language development. Using a matched pairs randomized controlled trial design, caregiver-child dyads were randomized into the 3Ts-HV intervention (n = 79) or Healthy Lifestyle control (n = 78) condition. Analyses of covariance revealed that compared with their control counterparts, the 3Ts-HV caregivers were more knowledgeable about early childhood cognitive and language development, and provided more language exposure for and engaged in more conversational turn-takings with their child. The 3Ts-HV caregivers also utilized more praise, explanations, and open-ended questions but less criticism, physical control,and intrusiveness than their control counterparts when interacting with their child. Findings provided empirical evidence supporting the immediate efficacy of the 3Ts-HV intervention in enhancing caregiver knowledge, the quantity of linguistic inputs, and the quality of caregiver interactions in the context of low-SES households, controlling for caregiver education level, language skills, and marital status. (author abstract)

Data Collection Methods

  • Home Visit Observations
  • Parent-child observations
  • Standardized assessment tools



For More Information

Leung, C. Y. Y., Hernandez, M. W., & Suskind, D. L. (2018). Enriching home language environment among families from low-SES backgrounds: A randomized controlled trial of a home visiting curriculum. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. Advance online publication.
Author Contact Information:
Dana L. Suskind


  • Participant, Family, and Program Outcomes