Depression Improvement and Parenting in Low-Income Mothers in Home Visiting




Robert T. Ammerman, Mekibib Altaye, Frank W. Putnam, Angelique R. Teeters, Yuanshu Zou, and Judith B. Van Ginkel

Brief Type

Journal publication


  • Healthy Families America (HFA)
  • Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP)


Research on older children and high-resource families demonstrates that maternal improvement in depression often leads to parallel changes in parenting and child adjustment. It is unclear if this association extends to younger children and low-income mothers. This study examined if In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT), a treatment for depressed mothers participating in home visiting programs, contributes to improvements in parenting and child adjustment. Ninety-three depressed mothers in home visiting between 2 and 10 months postpartum were randomly assigned to IH-CBT (n=47) plus home visiting or standard home visiting (SHV;n=46). Mothers were identified via screening and subsequent diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Measures of depression, parenting stress, nurturing parenting, and child adjustment were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3 months follow-up. Results indicated that there were no differences between IH-CBT and controls on parenting and child adjustment. Low levels of depression were associated with decreased parenting stress and increased nurturing parenting. Improvement in depression was related to changes in parenting in low-income mothers participating in home visiting programs. IH-CBT was not independently associated with these improvements, although to the extent that treatment facilitated improvement; there were corresponding benefits to parenting. Child adjustment was not associated with maternal depression, a finding possibly attributed to the benefits of concurrent home visiting or measurement limitations. Future research should focus on longer-term follow-up, implications of relapse, and child adjustment in later years. (author abstract)

Data Collection Methods

  • Interviews
  • Standardized assessment tools



For More Information

Ammerman, R. T., Altaye, M., Putnam, F. W., Teeters, A. R., Zou, Y., & Van Ginkel, J. B. (2015). Depression improvement and parenting in low-income mothers in home visiting. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 18(3), 555-563. doi: 10.1007/s00737-014-0479-7
Author Contact Information:
Robert Ammerman


  • Participant, Family, and Program Outcomes
  • Program Enhancements, Innovations, and Promising Approaches