Permanency Outcomes for Toddlers in Child Welfare two Years After a Randomized Trial of a Parenting Intervention




Susan J. Spieker, Monica L. Oxford, and Charles B. Fleming

Brief Type

Journal Publication


  • Other Models


This study reports on child welfare outcomes of a community based, randomized control trial of Promoting First Relationships® (PFR; Kelly, Sandoval, Zuckerman, & Buehlman, 2008), a 10-week relationship-based home visiting program, on stability of children's placements and permanency status two years after enrollment into the study. Toddlers 10–24 months (N = 210) with a recent placement disruption were randomized, along with their birth or foster/kin parents, to PFR (n=105) or a comparison condition (n= 105). A stable placement had no interruptions or disruptions. A permanent placement was a stable placement ending with a legal discharge to the study caregiver. Logistic regression models predicting the dichotomous stability and permanency variables, controlling for caregiver type, child welfare variables, and caregiver commitment, were conducted. There was no difference by intervention group on stability or permanency, but there was a significant interaction between caregiver type (birth parent vs. foster/kin) and intervention group. More foster/kin caregivers who received the PFR intervention provided stable, uninterrupted care and eventually adopted or became the legal guardians of the toddlers in their care, compared to foster/kin caregivers randomized to the comparison condition. (author abstract)

Data Collection Methods

  • Program administrative record reviews



For More Information

Spieker, S. J., Oxford, M. L., & Fleming, C. B. (2014). Permanency outcomes for toddlers in child welfare two years after a randomized trial of a parenting intervention. Children and Youth Services Review, 44, 201–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.06.017
Author Contact Information:
Susan J. Spieker


  • Participant, Family, and Program Outcomes