Long-Term Impact of a Cell Phone-Enhanced Parenting Intervention




Jennifer E. Burke Lefever, Kathryn M. Bigelow, Judith J. Carta, John G. Borkowski, Elizabeth Grandfield, Luke McCune, Dwight W. Irvin, and Steven F. Warren

Brief Type

Journal Publication


  • Other Models


Home visiting programs support positive parenting in populations at-risk of child maltreatment, but their impact is often limited by poor retention and engagement. The current study assessed whether a cellular phone-supported version (PCI-C) of the Parent-Child Interactions (PCI) intervention improved long-term parenting practices, maternal depression, and children's aggression. Low-income mothers ( n = 371) of preschool-aged children were assigned to one of the three groups: PCI-C, PCI, and a wait-list control (WLC) group. Parenting improved in both intervention groups between baseline and 12-month follow-up compared to the WLC. Children in the PCI-C group were rated to be more cooperative and less aggressive than children in the WLC. The results offer evidence of the long-term effectiveness of PCI and the additional benefits of cellular phone supports for promoting intervention retention and improving children's behavior. (author abstract)

Data Collection Methods

  • Interviews
  • Parent-child observations
  • Standardized assessment tools


For More Information

Lefever, J. E. B., Bigelow, K. M., Carta, J. J., Borkowski, J. G., Grandfield, E., McCune, L., Irvin, D. W., ... Warren, S. F. ( 2017). Long-term impact of a cell phone–enhanced parenting intervention. Child Maltreatment, 22, 4.
doi: 10.1177/1077559517723125
Author contact information:
Jennifer Lefever


  • Participant, Family, and Program Outcomes
  • Program Enhancements, Innovations, and Promising Approaches
  • Participant Recruitment, Retention, Engagement, and Dosage