Birth-Related Outcomes for Second Children Following Home Visiting Program Enrollment for New Parents of First Children




Margaret L. Holland, Eileen M. Condon, Gabrielle R. Rinne, Madelyn M. Good, Sarah Bleicher, Connie Li, Rose M. Taylor, and Lois S. Sadler

Brief Type

Journal Publication


  • Other Models


Introduction: Home visiting (HV) programs aim to promote child and family health through perinatal intervention. HV may benefit second children through improving subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, HV impacts on birth outcomes of second children have not been examined in a naturalistic setting. Methods: Using data from Connecticut Nurturing Families Network (NFN) home visiting program of families enrolled from 2005 to 2015, we compared birth-related outcomes (birthweight, preterm birth, Cesarean section delivery, prenatal care utilization) of second children (n = 1758) to demographically similar propensity-score-matched families that were not enrolled in NFN (n = 5200). We examined whether the effects of NFN differed by maternal age, race and ethnicity, or visit attendance pattern. Results: There was no program effect for the full sample. The effect of NFN did not differ by maternal age or visit attendance pattern but did differ by maternal race and ethnicity. Black women in NFN were more likely to receive adequate prenatal care during their second pregnancy (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01, 1.09) and Hispanic women in NFN were less likely to deliver by Cesarean section for their second birth (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.94, 0.99), compared to Black and Hispanic women in the comparison group respectively. There was a protective program effect on prematurity of the second child (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85, 0.996) for women with a preterm first birth. Discussion: These findings suggest that benefits of HV extend to subsequent birth-related outcomes for women from marginalized racial/ethnic groups. HV may help buffer some harmful social determinants of health. (author abstract)

Data Collection Methods

  • Program administrative record reviews
  • State administrative record reviews



For More Information

Holland, M. L., Condon, E. M., Rinne, G. R., Good, M. M., Bleicher, S., Li, C., Taylor, R. M., & Sadler, L. S. (2022). Birth-related outcomes for second children following home visiting program enrollment for new parents of first children. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 26(4), 941–952. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-021-03365-3
Author Contact Information:
Margaret L. Holland


  • Participant, Family, and Program Outcomes